Project environments in organizations are predominantly characterized by temporary teams. The team refers to project management group, project human resources, support specialists, customer or customer representatives, vendors and business partners. . Project teams can be divided into a Planning Team (support, Project Manager, executive committee, and Execution Team (functional areas, suppliers, partners, Project Manager.) If the team is multidisciplinary, this is a challenge considering the its contrast with the homogeneity of language found in the functional areas.
The Project Manager can select the key people of the project team, coordinate the overall project planning, establish the product to be delivered, establish the work structure, establish the sequencing of activities, identify those responsible for the parts of the project, establish the refer schedule, estimate and establish the base budget, sell the project to the departments and their officials to obtain approvals, prepare and coordinate the project management plans, including the Plan for Human Resource management.
The teams may be different or not and there are several stakeholders in the project. Teams invariably participate as an stakeholder in the projects and there are specific roles within the projects, among them:
- Stakeholder : An individual, group or organization that can affect, be affected, or feel affected by a decision, activity, or outcome of a project.
- Client: Client is (are) to (s) person (s) or organization (tions) to pay (Ram) for the product, service, or result of the project. Clients can be internal or external to the executing organization.
- Sponsor / Sponsor : A person or group that provides the resources and support for the project, program or portfolio, and is responsible for its success.
When there is a project office within the organization, the PMO (Project Management Officer) is an organizational entity to which are assigned various responsibilities related to the centralized and coordinated management of the projects.
Programs define a group of projects, subprograms, and related program activities that are managed in a coordinated manner by project managers for benefits and control that would not be available if they were managed individually. Portfolios handle projects, programs, and group-managed operations to achieve strategic objectives.
At the beginning of the Project, the roles are still unclear and the project manager must map the needs of the project and can also analyze the competencies of each team member. Until the team is allocated the communication is still poor and the environment is undefined.
The project manager coordinate and integrate activities among different units. The project manager must also has strong interpersonal communication skills to share to the team the sense of urgency, that is, to keep the team’s attention on deliveries and project milestones. Their interpersonal skills include leadership, teamwork, motivation, communication, influence, decision-making, attention to politics and culture, negotiation, building trust, conflict management, coaching.
Training and development
The growth of the Project Team should be a constant concern. The PMBOk defines the staff development process that includes training, staff assignments, and resource availability schedules. The result is the evaluation of team performance that provides relevant information in human resource management. Obviously team building activities should be considered.
Interpersonal Skills are especially important for team development, sometimes known as soft skills . Skills such as empathy, influence, and group facilitation are valuable assets during project team management. Training includes all activities designed to enhance skills. Activities can range from a minute until an external expertise to improve interpersonal relationships.
. Integration and other areas
The project environment, organizational structures and the environment (PMI, 2013) can lead to the creation of a hybrid project management methodology including agile principles (AGILE MANIFEST, 2015) and / or formal. The objectives of the project may be different from those of the organization (project X organization) generating conflicts . The main sources of conflict are the following: Schedules, Priorities, Human resources, Balance of technical and performance opinions, Administrative procedures, Costs and Conflicts of personality.
The project manager must know the best practices in order to apply the project management techniques in the various areas ( costs , human resources , project scope , time , communications , etc. ) . The integration project requires choices to be made: for example to define the schedule, the number of resources in the project, the estimated scope, risk responses, calendar resources, and other aspects must be taken into account, as well as on allocation of resources, concessions between conflicting alternatives and management of mutual dependencies.
Project management activities do not occur independently. Project managers should apply their management skills, skills and tools to meet the desired project performance by addressing the project’s hierarchical relationships.
Finally, Project managers should apply their knowledge in management, your skills and use tools to meet the much desired project performance . The Project Manager can also develop the project team, authorize and initiate deployment, delegate authority and define responsibilities, allocate required inputs, manage conflicts among team members, maintain motivation and support staff, communication with all stakeholders in the project, dissolve the team and terminate the project recording lessons learned.
AGILE MANIFEST.Available in: http://agilemanifesto.org/, 12/2017.
CAMPOS, Vicente Falconi. O Valor dos Recursos Humanos na Era do Conhecimento. Falconi consultores de Resultado, 8.ed, 2014, ISBN: 978-85-98254-60-9.
DRUCKER, Peter. Fator Humano e Desempenho. São Paulo: Pioneira, 1981.
MAXIMIANO, Antônio Cesar Amaru. Administração de projetos: como transformar idéias em resultados. 4. Ed. São Paulo: Atlas, 2010.
Project Management Institute – PMI (2013). A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® guide) (5th ed.). Newton Square: Project Management Institute, Inc.
Leonard Grandinetti Chaves is a graduate and postgraduate in IT in Fumec and MSC, master’s at Computer Science from Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais -UFMG. He has experience in Computer Science, focusing on Database, Geoprocessing and acting on the following subjects: EAI, XML, GML. His experience includes Project Management in private companies and government agencies. Leonardo is an instructor in several training courses organized by PMI Minas Gerais-Brazil Chapter as volunteer. He is MBA Professor at Puc Minas and Senac, and a lecturer with several publications. He can be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org.
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